Jamie Stevenson (56) of Fishcoates, Rutherglen, who was named by the NCA as one of Britain's most wanted men, was tracked down after a campaign was launched to trace 12 high-profile fugitives.
Stevenson was taken into custody in Bergen op Zoom while out for a run in an operation mounted by the National Crime Agency, Dutch National Police and Police Scotland.
He is wanted over the seizure of a tonne of cocaine and 28 million Etizolam "street Valium" tablets.
The cocaine was found in a shipment at the Port of Dover in September 2020 and the tablets were seized following a raid on a suspected pill factory in Kent in June 2020.
Stevenson was also being sought in connection with two alleged attacks on properties in the Lanarkshire and Forth Valley areas in May 2020.
He was arrested around midday on Friday by a Dutch tactical unit in the southern municipality of Bergen op Zoom alongside another man who was also wanted by Police Scotland, after a surveillance operation.
Both men remain in custody and will face extradition proceedings.
NCA Regional Head of Investigation for Scotland Gerry McLean said: "Stevenson was arrested while jogging and was clearly trying to keep himself fit for a life on the run.
"Any arrest of a fugitive over extremely serious allegations is a great result.
"The Agency has been working endlessly with Police Scotland and international partners to trace Stevenson and return him to the UK.
"It does not matter where fugitives go, we will work with partners like the Dutch National Police who've provided superb help, to trace and arrest them."
Tim Mairs, Police Scotland Assistant Chief Constable said: "I am grateful for the assistance of the National Crime Agency and our international law enforcement partners in arresting the men who are wanted in Scotland.
"These men are regarded as dangerous criminals and we could not achieved this without their help.
"These arrests demonstrate our unceasing commitment to pursue and arrest those suspected of criminality in Scotland, regardless of their location in the world."
Dean Ferguson, 28, who was wanted by Police Scotland, was arrested alongside Stevenson and will also face extradition proceedings.